Village residents, as well as employees and customers at local businesses, were advised to boil water before drinking. Officials did not immediately know if the village's water supply has been contaminated, according to a news release.
Officials predicted the boil order could be lifted Friday but said residents should continue to take safety precautions until told otherwise.
The damaged pipe is underground near the Des Plaines River and Lincolnshire Drive. The leak was discovered about 10:30 a.m.
The break temporarily left toilets, sinks and drinking fountains throughout town without water pressure, rendering them unusable.
Public works crews isolated the leak Thursday and eventually restored water pressure to the entire system, but they were unable to finish repairs the same day, village officials said.
The cause was not immediately known.
At Stevenson High, more than 4,200 students were dismissed for the day about 11:15 a.m., roughly four hours earlier than normal.
All after-school activities at Stevenson were canceled Thursday. An audition clinic for upcoming performances of "Fiddler on the Roof" was delayed until Friday, and senior solo orchestra auditions were moved to a Highwood music school.
School officials said classes would resume on their normal schedule Friday. Because a boil could still be in effect for Lincolnshire, the school will provide bottled water to students and staffers throughout the day.
The library closed about noon because of the same lack of water pressure. Officials didn't know if the library will open Friday.
"Our fire suppression systems rely on that water flow," library spokeswoman Catherine Savage said. "We can't be open if those safety systems aren't fully functional."
Classes in Lincolnshire-Prairie View School District 103 have not yet begun, so the water main break didn't affect students at its three schools. Some new employees are training at the buildings, however.
"All staff members in buildings have been informed verbally about the boil order and advised to drink bottled water only," District 103 spokeswoman Kim Sylvan said.
The broken water main inconvenienced employees and customers at restaurants, hotels and other businesses throughout Lincolnshire.
Guests at the Lincolnshire Marriott Resort, the largest hotel and event facility in town, have been told not to drink water from faucets, an employee said. Guests were given bottles of water to drink.
Meals continued to be served at Red Robin Gourmet Burgers, but ice and soft drinks weren't available, an employee said.
At the nearby Wildfire Lincolnshire restaurant, staffers stopped serving soft drinks, water, tea and coffee but continued serving meals. Free bottled water was provided.
The water-related emergency is Lincolnshire's second in as many months. Parts of the village near the Des Plaines River flooded after a July rainstorm that left many suburbs under water.
The flooding likely wasn't responsible for the main breaking, said Wally Dittrich, Lincolnshire's assistant public works director and village engineer.