SEASIDE HEIGHTS, N.J. -- Coastal areas of New Jersey and New York that lost their boardwalks to Superstorm Sandy's surge are racing to rebuild them in time for tourist season -- in some places, without the boards.
For reasons both practical and environmental, some communities are proposing to replace their wooden boardwalks with more durable synthetic materials or even concrete. That is raising objections from those who say nothing else looks, feels or even smells quite like a true wooden boardwalk.
In New York, where Mayor Michael Bloomberg had already decided wooden boardwalks don't cut it anymore, a group from the Coney Island section of Brooklyn called Friends of the Boardwalk sued last year to block a plan to replace wooden boardwalks with concrete and plastic.
"When hurricanes come through, they don't ask whether it's concrete or wood," said Todd Dobrin, the group's leader, not convinced concrete boardwalks would withstand a storm any better than wood. "They destroy whatever is in their path."
While "Under the Polymerwalk" might not have the same ring to it as the Drifters' 1960s hit "Under The Boardwalk," New York City parks officials say concrete sections of boardwalk in Queens' Rockaways and Coney Island did hold up much better when Sandy hit in late October.
Bloomberg has long wanted to move away from the tropical hardwoods, harvested from endangered rain forests, that were used to build many boardwalks.
That is an issue Tim Keating, director of Rainforest Relief, has been working on for years. He says coastal communities will be under pressure to quickly rebuild but urges them to resist the temptation to use tropical wood such as ipe, which is cheaper than synthetic materials and popular for its durability. Belmar is considering ipe for its boardwalk reconstruction.
Keating says durable synthetic materials are the best choice for boardwalks; Belmar, Spring Lake, Point Pleasant Beach and other places already used it.
Manasquan, N.J., for decades has paved its beachfront walkway with asphalt. Yet that, too, gets trashed by major storms. A 1992 nor'easter smashed large sections of it, and Sandy wrecked about half of it.
Whatever communities decide, they need to do it soon. For many shore towns, boardwalks are their summertime economic engine, where tourists and residents alike spend their money on food and drinks, or on games of skee ball or balloon darts to win a stuffed animal.
In these towns, even in the many noncommercial sections where boardwalks are merely a non-sandy way to get from here to there, not having one is not an option. They will need the tourism money this summer more than ever as they try to rebuild homes and other infrastructure.
The destruction in Seaside Heights has become emblematic of the storm because of a roller coaster that plunged into the ocean. Mayor Bill Akers said 75 percent of his town's budget comes from tourism, with the remaining 25 percent raised from local taxpayers.
"You can see how important it is for us to get the boardwalk back up and running, and to make sure we have a summer season," he said. "It's something we have to get done."
Seaside Heights, like several other Jersey shore towns, is soliciting bids to rebuild its boardwalk; Akers estimated it will take $10 million to $12 million. The Federal Emergency Management Agency will reimburse towns for 75 percent of those costs, but local governments first must front all the money themselves, forcing many to borrow in the short or long term.
Terri Bissell moved to Seaside Heights 15 years ago after visiting it each summer for decades. Her parents started vacationing there 70 years ago.
"It was like heaven, coming down here to the boardwalk," she said. "It was our own little piece of heaven; that's why we bought here. The kids are so happy when they're on that boardwalk. Parents are always dying to bring their kids someplace to keep them busy; the Seaside Heights boardwalk has always been that place."
To the north, Belmar has approved the largest boardwalk rebuilding project so far in the aftermath of the storm, committing $20 million to rebuild its 1.3-mile boardwalk and haul away the remnants of the old one. It is also considering erecting a steel sea wall to be buried under sand dunes to help protect the boardwalk and homes and businesses.
"The beach and the boardwalk go together," said Mayor Matthew Doherty. "It's who we are; it's part of our identity."
Yet identity only goes so far in shore towns' calculus. Money is a bigger factor.
"If there's no boardwalk, people aren't going to come this summer," Doherty said. "They'll go somewhere else, and if they like it there, they won't be back here. We want to be the first in the race to get things started for the summer."
A 20-foot chunk of boardwalk is all that remains in Belmar, for one reason. It was an experimental section, bolted to underpinnings with the same hurricane tie-down straps that many homebuilders use to bind homes to their foundations. The entire new Belmar boardwalk will be built this way, Doherty said.
Other Jersey shore towns including Sea Girt, Asbury Park and Point Pleasant Beach are moving forward with boardwalk rebuilding plans; Spring Lake has to rebuild its boardwalk little more than a year after Tropical Storm Irene wrecked half the old one. New York state parks, including the popular Jones Beach, also are starting to rebuild.
Doherty, the Belmar mayor, is confident his boardwalk will be replaced before Memorial Day brings its own set of worries.
"If we rebuild this boardwalk, we'll have plenty of tourists," he said. "And then people will be complaining about parking."