WASHINGTON -- Former defense secretary Robert Gates stopped bagging his leaves when he moved into a small Washington military enclave in 2007. His next-door neighbor was Mike Mullen, then the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who had a chef, a personal valet and -- not lost on Gates -- troops to tend his property.
Gates may have been the civilian leader of the world's largest military, but his position did not come with household staff. So, he often joked, he disposed of his leaves by blowing them onto the chairman's lawn.
"I was often jealous because he had four enlisted people helping him all the time," Gates said in response to a question after a speech Thursday. He wryly complained to his wife that "Mullen's got guys over there who are fixing meals for him, and I'm shoving something into the microwave. And I'm his boss."
Of the many facts that have come to light in the scandal involving former CIA director David Petraeus, among the most curious was that during his days as a four-star general, he was once escorted by 28 police motorcycles as he traveled from his Central Command headquarters in Tampa, Fla. to socialite Jill Kelley's mansion. Although most of his trips did not involve a presidential-size convoy, the scandal has prompted new scrutiny of the imperial trappings that come with a senior general's lifestyle.
The commanders who lead the nation's military services and those who oversee troops around the world enjoy an array of perquisites befitting a billionaire, including executive jets, palatial homes, drivers, security guards and aides to carry their bags, press their uniforms and track their schedules in 10-minute increments. Their food is prepared by gourmet chefs. If they want music with their dinner parties, their staff can summon a string quartet or a choir.
The elite regional commanders who preside over large swaths of the planet don't have to settle for Gulfstream V jets. They each have a C-40, the military equivalent of a Boeing 737, some of which are configured with beds.
Since Petraeus' fall, many have strained to understand how such a celebrated general could have behaved so badly. Some have speculated that an exhausting decade of war impaired his judgment. Others wondered if Petraeus was never the Boy Scout he appeared to be. But Gates, who still possesses a modest Kansan's bemusement at Washington excess, has floated another theory.
"There is something about a sense of entitlement and of having great power that skews people's judgment," Gates said last week.
Among the Army's general officer corps, there is little support for Gates' hypothesis. "I love the man. I am his biggest supporter. But I strongly disagree," said retired Gen. Peter Chiarelli, who served as Gates' senior military assistant. "I find it concerning that he and others are not focusing on the effect on our guys of fighting wars for 11 years. No one was at it longer than Petraeus."
But other veteran commanders concurred with Gates. David Barno, a retired three-star general who commanded U.S. troops in Afghanistan, warned that the environment in which the top brass lives has the potential "to become corrosive over time upon how they live their life."
"You can become completely disconnected from the way people live in the regular world -- and even from the modest lifestyle of others in the military," Barno said. "When that happens, it's not necessarily healthy either for the military or the country."
Although American generals have long enjoyed many perks -- in World War II and in Vietnam, some dined on china set atop linen tablecloths -- the amenities afforded to today's military leaders are more lavish than anyone else in government enjoys, save for the president.
The benefits have not generated much attention among a public that has long revered its generals as protectors of the nation and moral beacons. And no general has been revered more than Petraeus, a fact Mullen remarked upon at his retirement ceremony.
He joked that a woman approached him at a dinner party, eyed his medals and asked him if he was somebody important. "I'm the president's top military adviser," he replied.
"Oh my goodness, General Petraeus," the woman said to Mullen. "I'm so sorry. I just didn't recognize you."
Petraeus cultivated his fame by grasping, before most of his comrades, how the narrative of modern warfare is shaped not just on the battlefield but among the chattering class back home. He invited book authors to accompany him, granted frequent interviews to journalists, fostered close relationships with Washington think tanks and embraced political leaders on both sides of the aisle.
He became an A-list guest at Washington parties. His stardom, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and a collective guilt among civilians disconnected from the conflicts all helped to raise the profile for his fellow generals. It wasn't just Jill Kelley, the Tampa woman who cultivated close relationships with him and other generals, including Gen. John Allen, the top commander in Afghanistan, by throwing lavish parties at her million-dollar house. Hostesses around the nation delighted at the presence of commanders in full-dress uniforms at social events.
The adulation fit their lifestyle.
"Being a four-star commander in a combat theater is like being a combination of Bill Gates and Jay Z -- with enormous firepower added," said Thomas Ricks, author of "The Generals," a history of American commanders since World War II.