Heading outside for some wintertime fun like sledding, throwing snowballs or ice skating can be a surefire cure for cabin fever.

It's also a great way for kids to get the 60 minutes of daily exercise they need. Just be sure your child is dressed right -- and know when it's time to come in and warm up.

Children exposed to extreme cold for too long and without warm, dry, breathable clothing can get frostbite or even life-threatening hypothermia.

Little bodies, big chill

"Children are more at risk from the cold than adults," said Dr. Sarah Denny, spokesperson for the Itasca-based American Academy of Pediatrics. "Because their bodies are smaller, they lose heat more quickly. Especially if they're having fun, they may be less likely to come inside when they're getting too cold."


Frostbite happens when the skin, and sometimes the tissue below it, freezes. Fingers, toes, ears, and noses are most likely to get frostbite.

Frostbitten skin may start to hurt or feel like it's burning, then quickly go numb. It may turn white or pale gray and form blisters.

What to do:

If you suspect frostbite, bring your child indoors to gently warm up. Don't rub the affected area, and don't pop any blisters.

Avoid placing anything hot directly on the skin. Soak frostbitten areas of the body in warm (not hot) water for 20 to 30 minutes. Warm washcloths can be applied to frostbitten noses, ears and lips.

After a few minutes, dry and cover your child with blankets. Give her something warm to drink.

If the pain or numbness continues for more than a few minutes, call your pediatrician.


When the body's temperature drops below normal from the cold, dangerous hypothermia begins to set in. A child may start shivering, a sign the body is trying to warm itself up, but then become sluggish, clumsy, or slur his words.

What to do:

Hypothermia is a medical emergency, so call 911 right away.

Until help arrives, bring your child indoors. Remove any wet clothing, which draws heat away from the body.

Wrap your child in blankets or warm clothes, and give her something warm to drink. Be sure to cover core body areas like the chest and abdomen.

If your child stops breathing or loses a pulse, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or CPR.

Preventing frostbite and hypothermia

Frostbite and hypothermia are different conditions, but some wintertime planning and safety steps can help protect your child from both. The AAP recommends:

Check the wind chill: In general, playing outside in temperatures or wind chills below -15° Fahrenheit should be avoided. At these temperatures, exposed skin begins to freeze within minutes.

What to wear: Several thin layers will help keep kids warm and dry. Insulated boots, mittens or gloves, and a hat are essential. Make sure children change out of any wet clothes right away.

Take breaks: Set reasonable limits on the amount of time spent playing outside to prevent hypothermia and frostbite. Make sure kids have a place to go for regular indoor breaks to warm up.

For additional information on winter safety and extreme temperatures, visit HealthyChildren.org.

• Children's Health is a continuing series. This week's article is courtesy of the American Academy of Pediatrics in Elk Grove Village.